LA Study Class Newsletter [#26]

My Notes:

The main topic of this edition of the newsletter is a discussion of the 5 Year Plan (1974-79) and its goals. It includes the thoughts of a then member of the US NSA (Betts) and also mentions, very frankly, a marked decrease in the growth rate of the Baha’i community – as measured by new enrollments. This decrease in growth has since continued and just recently there was a comment from a person at the US National Assembly that it is currently the lowest (since records have been kept). The Baha’i community in the US is in danger of total quantitative stagnation. I’d like to talk about this and explore it is so and perhaps offer some salient ideas about how it may be reversed. But that will be for a future post.

As well, the newsletter includes a few more reader’s comments. They show not only how far reaching the newsletter was but just what exactly individual Baha’is thought of it.

If this is your first newsletter, you might also want to read the introduction to the LA study class, here.

On with the 70’s class . . .


Hermosa Beach, California 90254
“Have you hugged your
boa constrictor today?”

Vol. III, No. 4 — April, 1978

It seemed, back in 1973, the American Baha’i Community had at last — at long last — turned the corner. We came off the Nine Year Plan in blitzkrieg fashion. Toward the end of the Plan, new Local Assemblies were being formed at a pace of more than 100 a year. By the year’s end, there were over 900 Local Spiritual Assemblies in the country. The ranks of the believers were expanded as never before.

When the House of Justice established the new Five Year Plan (1974-79) goals at 1,400 Local Assemblies in the United States, there was no doubt that we could achieve that mark — and not even have to strain much to do so.

It is now four years since the House set domestic expansion goals for America, we are nowhere near attaining most of them. We have about 1,000 Assemblies (roughly 50 to 100 more than when we began work in 1973). The Faith, once bursting with enthusiastic growth, seems to have stagnated for the last several years. What went wrong?

Essentially, that is the question our study class asked Richard Betts, one of three members of the National Spiritual Assembly living in the Los Angeles are. At 39, Betts is the yougest member of the national body. He has served on the NSA since July, 1973.

He summarized passages from the Writings, noting that the purpose of man is to carry forward an ever-advancing civilization and that the goal of the World Order of Baha’u’llah is to safeguard the interests and promote the unity of the human race. This principle of the oneness of mankind is the distinguishing characteristic of the Faith, Betts said, noting that the role of religion is to spiritualize the human race and act as the best means of establishing world order. All pretty basic stuff, all of which we are pretty much familiar with.

These idealistic goals will be attained through a slow but steady growth process in which the Faith permeates and influences the affairs of man, Betts said. And then he read from an address that few — if any — of us had heard of or knew about. In 1953, Ruhiyyih Khanum represented Shoghi Effendi at the dedication ceremonies of the Wilmette House of Worship. At that time, she read on his behalf, what amounted to an analysis of the historical states of the spiritual development of mankind. Shoghi Effendi’s ten-stage survey of humanity’s spiritual growth began by describing the first period as a 6,000-year-long epoch during which various Manifestations began the transformation of the human race. The second period culminated with the declaration of the Bab in 1844. Period three ended with the Bab’s martyrdom before a military firing squad in Tabriz, Iran. The fourth period began with Baha’u’llah’s incarceration in the Siyah Chal [Ed. the Black Pit, alt: Siyyah-Chal] and His realization of His religious mission. Period five covered the declaration of Baha’u’llah in the Garden of Ridvan. The sixth step included Baha’u’llah’s banishment to Adrianople and ‘Akka, and the period of His letters to the kings and rulers of the planet. The seventh period covered the beginning of Abdu’l-Baha’s ministry while still held in the Most Great Prison and His writing of the Tablets of the Divine Plan — the first organized approach to the systematic expansion of the Faith. Period eight covered the series of national plans, the First and Second Seven Year Plans ending respectively, in 1944 and 1953. Period nine in this spiritual development of the human race ended with the centenary of the declaration of Baha’u’llah at the Ridvan Garden (1963). The final period covers the penetration of the Faith to all corners of the planet and numerous crusades in carrying the message to all. We are now in that final period.

Bretts said the current Five Year Plan is best understood in the perspective of all this. The plan involves consolidating victories won in previous plans, a vast expansion of the number of locations where Baha’is reside, and the development of the distinctive character of Baha’i life. With respect to attaining these goals, Bretts pointed out that we have pretty much preserved the victories of earlier plans and have at least begun the process of developing the distinctive character of Baha’i life. This last is a qualitative goal and one which is somewhat difficult to measure in terms of success. The development of the Comprehensive Deepening Program represents an effort by the National Spiritual Assembly to begin work on that goal. The revamping of the declaration and enrollment process also is an outgrowth of that goal.

But, the nub of the issue — the homefront expansion and consolidation of the Baha’i localities — is another story. At the beginning of the Five Year Plan, our goals were to have at least 7,000 localities in the United States where Baha’is reside. We now have about 5,000 such places. We were to have at least 1,400 Local Spiritual Assemblies, including no fewer than 25 on Indian reservations. We are barely above the 1,000 mark. (Betts mentioned that the NSA thought the Indian reservation quota would be the toughest domestic goal to win; instead, it was one of the first accomplished.) Class members asked him if there had been a dro in the enrollment rate which might explain some of the slowing growth trend. He replied that adult enrollment is growing slightly, although youth enrollment is down. And he put the current American Baha’i population at about 70,000 persons.

Indicating that the problem of the American Baha’i Community is not as grave as it would seem, Betts said the relocation of as few as 200-300 Baha’is could mean the difference between winning and losing the homefront goals. Even so, the NSA member said, “Things are now down to the 11th hour and we have a lot to do before midnight.” He was asked if the American Baha’i Community isnot, in fact, teetering on the brink of disaster with respect to winning the plan goals. Betts responded that this is not the first time the Community has come right down to the wire before making its goals. The First and Second Seven Year Plans were both won in the final year; it was only in the Nine Year Plan (completed in 1973) that the homefront goals were achieve much before the deadline. He explained his optimism by saying, “If one loses genuine confidence, then defeat is at hand.”

Perceiving a new mood of success following a successful Baha’i proclamation earlier this year in the small border town of El Centro, California, just north of Mexico, Betts said “all we need is a handful of Baha’is” and victory “is still possible.”

He also touched on some of the negative aspects of the American Baha’i Community, noting that the divorce rate among Baha’i couples appears to be on the rise and the number of youth enrollments is dropping. Enrollments are coming in at a rate of about 150 a month, which Betts called a “very slow growth” for the Faith in the United States. He said National Assembly members are watching for any signs of a growth spurt, figuring any place where about 500 persons enroll in the Faith during the course of a year heralds the “entry by troops in the Cause.”

That remark triggered a reaction among class members, many of whom voiced displeasure at he entire mass teaching/mass enrollment concept. Betts, however, defended the practice, saying it had been almost totally misunderstood and misapplied in home front teaching. Teaching the masses means reaching most Americans with the Baha’i message. Somehow this idea got twisted into a campaign that concentrated on the poor. A further complication arose when the notion got out that teaching the masses also meant taking an indirect approach to the Faith, that is, teaching the Baha’i Faith without mentioning Baha’u’llah. That practice soon led to trouble with persons being enrolled in the Faith without having any real idea of what they were doing. When word og this reached Wilmette, the National Assembly stepped in and bega downplaying teaching the masses until someone could figure out how to make the idea work as it was designed. Even though teaching the masses, or mass teaching, depending on who is using he phrase, has been misinterpreted and misused, Betts said the total effect of the experimet has been a good one. The mass teaching concept shook up a placid Baha’i administration and forced local communities to become more flexible in their approach to teaching the Faith.

Betts shed some light on a question that perplexed class members (and many others in the American Baha’i Community). In the early 1970’s, the Community’s growth rate was steady, if not phenomenal. We were riding the crest of a boom and — suddendly — things went bust. For the last four years we have been unsuccessful at doing the same thing that worked in the period of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. Class members asked Betts: What went wrong?

Essentially, he said, the mood of the country took a turn that the Baha’i Community failed to follow. The 1960’s was a period of intense social activism. Beginning with the civil rights movement and ending with the anti-Vietnam war activism, people were involved in causes on a collective level. Individuals put their lives on the line for one movement or another. This was a good time for the Faith. Our social principles enjoyed broad appeal and many people were attracted to the Faith because of these ideals. But somewhere in the early 1970’s, the public mood shifted. The Vietnam war ended on a sour note. Americans became more introspective and introverted. Self-improvement became trendy and a variety of self-realization movements came into vogue. People turned from social activism to personal concerns and materialism reestablished its influence.

But the Baha’i teaching strategy did not change and there was no effort to capitalize on this new mood, Betts said. Instead of emphasizing the power of the Faith to spiritually transform individuals, we kept plonking at the same old themes which, by the mid-1970’s, had simply lost much of their punch. The Baha’i Faith has not addressed the issue of personal salvation in its teaching work, eventhough no religious revelation in the history of man has more to say about how man can related to God, Betts said.

Looking ahead, he said issues that remain to be resolved include the racial question which has been relatively calm in recent years, but which could flare up at any time. Racial polatization remains very much in effect in the United States and, while a measure of racial equality has been attained, race unity still elludes us. Baha’is, at least, are committed to the concept of racial unity, althoughmuch more needs to be done within the Community. He also sugested that the American Baha’i Community would do well to emphasize the issues of morality and rectitude of conduct among the believers and the administrative institutions, as well. Betts said that, while we are now in a cycle of personal awareness and emphasis on the individual, that could give way to, say, more nationwide awareness of human rights as an issue (one of the major themes of the Carter administration).

One of the persistent problems of the American Baha’i Community is bureaucracy and dysfunction at the National Office. Class members asked Betts about that. He conceded there are staff problems at the National Center, saying there is too much lag time between teh presentation of a problem and its resolution. A large administrative load is handled by relatively few people, and staff turnover compounds the problem. Betts said one of the distressing aspects of this is that, in some cases, employees at the National Center have exercized what amounts to a “pocket veto” by simply refusing to carry out policies or directives with which they did not agree. In other cases, people are sincere but so afraid of doing the wrong thing that they take excrutiating — and time consuming — care trying to follow instructions from the National Assembly.

Motivating the American Baha’i Community and getting the National Center on track is a “slow and difficult process” with its ups and down, Betts said. But, optimism and the conviction that we are making progress prevails and, “if we lose that sense that victory is ours, we will taste defeat much more often,” he commented.


HUMBLE APOLOGIES DEPT. We regret the fact that our April newsletter is so late in coming out. The reason is that shiftless Bob Ballenger did not get around to writing up the notes until recently. He’s a newspaper reporter and claims that the pressure of writing stories on California’s June 6 primary election kept him from getting to the notes. That may even be true. Ballenger promises everything will be normal with him… atleast until the November general elections.


We got a note from Dr. John Cornell of Reedley, California, who taught our class on Baha’i justice in March. While complimenting us on the newsletter summary, he wrote, “I would like to call your attention to one error, however. It was not I who said that individuals cannot administer justice. I maintain just the opposite. It is easy to understand how you could have thought that came from me, because ideas were bouncing around the room think and fast. It is precisely to counteract what we consider to be this mistaken notion that we made a special section on justice by individuals on pp. 28-29 of our study course, Six Lessons on Baha’i Law.”

Nahed Rushdy of Barrhead, Alberta, Canada, writes: “It’s amazing how efficient these California Baha’is are. I’ve been receiving your newsletter since the annual meeting of the Association of Baha’i Studies in Vancouver [in late December, 1977] and I’ve been planning to write and tell you how much I enjoy reading it… Reading the newsletter is almost like being there in person. It’s great food for thought while I’m working in a small country town in Northern Alberta. Hope to make it to the class some day.”

Sohaila Samimi of Portugal writes: “Thanks so much for sending me the newsletter — not that I agree with or enjoy reading every single one. I personally think the scathing remarks are absolutely not mind-opening an dconstructive and sound like they belong to the mid-’60s. The beauty of giving an intelligent, gentle but precise and loving idea is what is so unique about the Faith. It has never been tried before and, if so, has been abandoned as impossible — which makes the challenge all the more exhilarating and mind blowing. I do not think blasting people and tearing them apart does anything except ease the frustration in our hearts and furnish an easy channel for our egos and makes this beautiful refuge as cold and lifeless as the rest of the world. Excuse the poetry, but it’s not gentle rain of spring that opens blossoms and buds. By all means, inquire and probe and think and so on — but actually what are we doing in the name of open-mindedness and etc?”

Alan Coupe of Burlington, Ontario, Canada writes: “Thanks very much for putting me on the list for the study class notes. I enjoyed reading the commentary on my presentation (Zarathustra and the Baha’i Faith, at the Canadian Association conference in Vancouver). Did someone use a tape recorder? If not, then they took very good notes. You may be interested in knowing that the Universal House [of Justice] has advised me in a letter that there is nothing in the Baha’i writings to suggest that 2 or more Manifestations cannot appear at the same time.”

CHANGE OF CLASS TREASURER: Please note that from now on class newsletter subscriptions should be sent to: Mr. Anthony Lee, [Ed. personal address follows]. Subscriptions are $12 per year (12 issues) for those living in the United States and are free for those outside the U.S. Back issues and copies of written presentations are $1 apiece for all.

NEXT CLASS: Since these notes are being sent very late, it should be noted that the next class was already held — on May 7. Notes from that class are being prepared and will be sent out in June. Since they probably will not be mailed before the June class, however, we wish to notify everyone that the next class session will be Sunday, June 4, at 2:00 pm at the home of Tony Lee [Ed. personal address and phone nuber follows]. The topic of the class will be John S. Hatcher’s essay “The Mataphorical Nature of Physical Reality.” All class members will be expected to have read the most recent issue of World Order (the Summer 1977 issue) and was published as Vol. No. 3 of Etudes Baha’i Studies, a publication of the Canadian Association for Studies on the Baha’i Faith.


Related Links:

The original scanned documents can be found here.

LA Study Class Newsletter [#25]

My Notes:

This edition of the LA Class newsletter primarily deals with the Baha’i perspective on justice. As well it includes a discussion of a paper by Peter Smith, a British Baha’i theologian, regarding ‘motifs’ in the Babi and Baha’i Dispensation.

I only wish to make two small comments. First, the Persian word ‘Insaf’ is translated as ‘equity’ below (referenced to Shoghi Effendi) but it has much broader connotations. In some instances, it can mean virtue, justice, righteous, moral, propriety, and objectivity. To give you an idea of the complexity, it is considered a rather harsh insult to call someone in Persian: ‘bi-insaf’ or ‘without-insaf’.

Second, the class notes mention

After the death of the Manifestation — Baha’u’llah — Abdu’l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice became, in turn, the central authorities.

Although this account can be argued to be, strictly speaking, factual; a study of history and the Baha’i administrative order, would show it to be overly simplistic. According to the Will and Testament of Baha’u’llah (known as the Book of the Covenant), Muhammad Ali, the older half-brother of Abdu’l-Baha was to inherit the position of Center of the Covenant. Muhammad Ali failed to do so because he was declared a Covenant-Breaker and cast out of the Baha’i community by Abdu’l-Baha. As well, it is incorrect to imply that the authority flows from Shoghi Effendi (as the person fulfilling the institution of the Guardianship) to the Universal House of Justice. Even a cursory reading of the Will and Testament of Abdu’l-Baha will show that in the Baha’i administrative order, the two institutions were linked inseparably and created to operate together, albeit with distinct spheres of authority.

There are two diagrams depicting the ‘motifs’ discussed in Peter Smith’s paper and I will re-do them so they are easier to read. Expect them to be uploaded in a little while.

If this is your first newsletter, you might also want to read the introduction to the LA study class, here.

On with the 70’s class . . .


Hermosa Beach, California 90254
“The Last Place God Created.”
(On Saturday just before midnight)

Vol. III, No. 3 — March, 1978

“The best beloved of all things in My sight is Justice,” Baha’u’llah wrote in The Hidden Words. “The purpose of justice is the appearance of unity among men,” He said in the Words of Paradise. The Baha’i Faith may be unique among the world’s religions in this emphasis on justice as a fundamental spiritual goal — a stand that is misunderstood, misonstrued and misapplied, even by the Baha’is. That viewpoint was expressed in our March study class by Dr. John Cornell, a dentist from the Central California town of Reedley. He has been a Baha’i for many years and has made the study of Baha’i justice — what it is and how it works — something of a pet project. Dr. Cornell’s lecture to our class was based upon a deepening course booklet, Six Lessons on Baha’i Law. The course book, of which Dr. Cornell is the co-author, is available for $2 from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the Hawaiian Islands.

Dr. Cornell told our class that the topic of justice is an uncomfortable one in Chritian America. This is partly because national attitudes equate the law and justice with oppression and a restriction on the freedoms we enjoy. Also, he suggested, there may be subconscious guilt feelings regarding justice in our predominantly Christian culture. That religion assumes sin to be the prevailing condition in human society (as witness the outmoded but still potent theological concept of Original Sin). By way of illustration, Dr. Cornell told of being on an interreligious panel, the members of which were asked what what they would most like to see accomplished on earth. When his turn came, following Baha’u’llah’s lead, he said, “Justice.” That remark produced some gasps from other panel members, who were less than happy with the prospect of justice in the world. Why would they react this way? he asked. One explanation is that, under a mental attitude in which Christians routinely consider themselves to be “guilty” of “sinning,” justice is not a state of existence which they would eagerly anticipate.

Dr. Cornell called justice a complex topic. Everyone has an idea of what it means, but these views seldom agree. Each side in a conflict, whether it be in court or on the battlefield, claims to have justice on its side. Turning to history, Dr. Cornell said justice is an ancient concept. The word itself comes from a Latin root, meaning duty or obligation, somthing that is praiseworthy but, at the same time, obligatory. Humans may have no birthright to charity, but it is widely recognized that they have a right to justice.

The history of justice is influenced by three main schools of European thinking, wihch saw justice in terms of Positive Law, Social Good and Natural Right. Positive Law holds that justice and the law are the same; to conform to the law is justice. To disobey or ignore the law is injustice. Under such thinking, there can be no such thing as an unjust law. The Social Good theory states that justice and mercy are synonymous. If one does good for people, one is performing justice. Under the Natural Right concept, it is believed that we all come into this world with certain inalienable rights. It is justice to recognize and uphold these human rights. (This attitude has influenced Baha’i thinking, reflecting itself, for example, in the Baha’i bumper sticker: “Human Rights are God-given Rights”.)

The fact that people don’t agree on what justice is presents social problems. Dr. Cornell said Shoghi Effendi evidently made a distinction between justice and equity by calling them companion concepts. In the Baha’i Faith, the word “justice” is translated from the Arabic word “‘Adl.” For example, the term “Baytu’l-‘Adl” means “House of Justice.” On the othrer hand, the word “Insaf” is used to mean “fairness,” which Shoghi Effendi usually translated as “equity.”

From this distinction, Dr. Cornell said, “‘Adl” is used to signify the justice that comes through law, while “Insaf” equates to how the individual perceives and applies justice (or, more properly, equity) in his or her relations with other people. Elaborating on the Baha’i concept of justice, he explained this as being a system based on the principle of reward and punishment — but not retribution. The concept of retribution or retaliation is based on the notion of striking back, getting even. Old Testament justice teaches “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” (This once was a progressive concept for, in the time of Moses, it limited revenge to a strictly measure-for-measure principle. If one man blinded another man, the victim did not have the right to kill his assailant, but merely blind him. The system halted a potential escalation of violence in pursuit of justice.) Dr. Cornell said that Shoghi Effendi’s translation and use of Baha’u’llah’s words indicate that, in Baha’i justice, the concept of punishment is used in the sense of training; the miscreant is punished as a lesson to him, to train him not to disobey the law. It is through the application of Baha’i law that justice is this day will be accomplished.

This view triggered disagreement among class members. Some people argue that Baha’i law will not produce justice in all cases.

While it might lead to a just social order, it could also cause hardships to some individuals who are forced to conform to its standards. Citing the example of the marriage law, it was pointed out that the requirement of parental consent can exact a penalty on two people who want to marry. If one of the natural parents refuses to grant consent — even on frivolous or unreasonable grounds — there is absolutely no recourse. Baha’i institutions cannot compel consent, and even have no right of interference. So, while, in the long run, the concept of parental consent presumably will have beneficial efects, it can mean grief and disappointment in individual cases.

Dr. Cornell also took the position that Baha’is, as individuals, are incapable of administering justice. He said, in the Faith, Baha’i Assemblies should practice justice. That is, they should apply Baha’i laws, and not temper them with mercy. This, he pointed out, conflicts with Christian concepts of justice, which regard man as sinful and justice as an awe-inspiring, fear-invoking process. Justice, in the Christian view, would crush the spirit of man, were mercy not used to lessen its impact. Dr. Cornell, however, separated the concepts of justice and mercy. Mercy, he said, is to be applied on an individual level, on a one-to-one basis. He cited a passage from the Baha’i Writings: “If someone commits an error and wrong toward you, you must instantly forgive him,” Abdu’l-Baha wrote in The Promulgation of Universal Peace (p. 154). However, the Master also wrote, “If a person commits a crime against you, you have not the right to forgive him…” (Paris Talks, p. 154). The point here is that when a crime — an offense against the public — which is punishable by law — is committed, the criminal is to be punished and not forgiven. An individual may forgive a criminal act committed against him, but the Baha’i society, in its administration of justice, may not. The purpose of punishment in the Baha’i Faith is to train a person not to commit another crime.

While Dr. Cornell separated the concepts of justice and mercy, he did not define them as mutually exclusive. He cited a letter of Shoghi Effendi (printed on page 8 of Baha’i News, No. 98), to the effect that local and national Assemblies “should act tactfully, patiently and in a friendly and kindly spirit” toward Baha’is who are misbehaving. Rather than demanding instant and strict adherence to Baha’i laws, Assemblies, the Guardian wrote, “should try to gradually persuade them of the wisdom and necessity” of obeying the law, “instead of thrusting upon them” a new principle. “Too severe and immediate action in such cases is not only fruitless, but actually harmful. It alienates people instead of winning them to the Cause.”

One point made by Dr. Cornell is that individuals, including Baha’is lack the capacities to administer justice to other people.

Not everyone could agree with this view. Some class members argued that a parent can act in a just manner in resolving a dispute between her children. Likewise, a teacher who settles an argument between students also has the authority and the capacity to act justly.

Another topic that generated class discussion and disagreement was the concept of limitations of power in the Baha’i Faith. Some Baha’is, Dr. Cornell said, are under the impression that Baha’i Assemblies have virtually unlimited power and can do anything they please. He called this a misstamtement of fact and, using a quotation from Shoghi Effendi, took the view that even the Manifestation of God faces limits in what He or She may do or decree. “So great and transcendental is this principle of Divine justice… that Baha’u’llah Himself subordinates His personal inclination and wish to the all-compelling force of its demands and implications. ‘God is My witness:’ He thus explains, ‘were it not contrary to the Law of God, I would have kissed the hand of My would-be murderer, and would cause him to inherit My earthly goods. I am restrained, however, by the binding Law laid down in the Book…'” ( Advent of Divine Justice, p. 22-23)

If Baha’u’llah Himself was limited in His powers, then local and national Assemblies are likewise restricted in what they can do, despite individual opinions to the contrary, Dr. Cornell said. Class members had little difficulty with this viewpoint. It is a fairly well-known fact that, if an individual disagrees with an action of his local Assembly, he can appeal that ruling to the national Assembly and even to the Universal House of Justice, for a final decision. But one class member raised a tantalizing hypothesis. In a sense, he argued, the House of Justice can do whatever it wants to. If the House makes a decision that an individual feels to be in error, the person is in no position to do anything about the situation. There is no appeal from that ruling, no higher authority to invoke. Since the House not only legislates matters not explicitely revealed in the Writings of Baha’u’llah, but also rules when and how these Writings apply, it has virtually limitless power. A Baha’i may be sincerely convinced that the House of Justice is wrong with regard to some particular decision, but that opinion is of no avail. The House is the supreme authority, and that’s it, folks. Therefore, the class member argued, the House has unlimited discretion within its sphere of jurisdiction — and that sphere is the entire world.

UPDATE: Last month, our class spent some time discussing a paper written by Peter Smith, an English Baha’i who teaches at the University of Lancaster in Great Britain. That paper, entitled “The Routinization of Charisma: Some Comments on Peter L. Berger’s ‘Motif Messianique et Processus Social Dans Le Bahaisme'” received a quick once over and some brief comments during our February session. We had to hold up our report on that discussion while Tony Lee sought Mr. Smith’s permission to include portions of his paper in our newsletter. That consent has arrived and here is a summary of our discussion.

In his study on the “The Routinization of Charisma,” Smith analyzes Berger’s work on the transplantation of the Baha’i Faith from East to West and, more importantly, the transformation of the Faith from the charismatic religious experience as shaped by the living Prophet to how this aura of authority is made into everyday routine in Baha’i practice, hence the title “The Routinization of Charisma”.

Smith divides Baha’i history into eleven time periods, and charts themes (or “motifs” as they are called) which underlie Baha’i history in each of these periods (see chart ). Each motif represents a theme within a religious movement that characterizes a view of the world and molds the religious practice.

Smith identifies four “motifs” or basic themes within the Babi-Baha’i Dispensation. These are “Polar,” which he asserts is distinctive to ISlam and the Baha’i Faith, and presents a central authority (the person of the Prophet — Arabic: Gutb) as a commanding figure who must be obeyed under all circumstances. (After the death of the Manifestation — Baha’u’llah — Abdu’l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice became, in turn, the central authorities.)

Smith’s second theme is “Messianic,” that is, the expectation among the body of the religious faithful of the coming of a Messiah. In the Baha’i Faith, this played directly off Shi’ah Islamic beliefs of a religious fulfillment and, later, in the Babi movement, the arrival of “Him Whom God Would Make Manifest,” which if one of the major themes of the Bayan. After the arrival of Baha’u’llah, the messianic theme faded in importance and influence as a force in the Baha’i Faith.

The third theme is “Legalistic” or relating to the authority of the Prophet. This began in the years immediately preceding the Babi-Baha’i Dispensation as an acceptance of the Islamic Shar’ah (or Muslim code of laws derived from the Qur’an), but was dominated by a messianic expectation. The Islamic Shar’ah was replaced by a Babi Shari’ah and, later, by anarchistic tendencies among some of the early Babis when they revolved against the poer of the government of 19th century Persia. With the advent of the Baha’i Revelation, and the development of Baha’i law and administration, these became the mainstays of the legalistic theme Smith writes of.

His final “motif” is “Esoteric-Gnostic.” This referst to the concept of secret knowledge, possessed only by a few religious insiders. This phenomenon was quite strong during the pre-Babi period, but gradually faded with the advent of the Bab and Baha’u’llah. Curiously, it enjoyed a brief resurgence during the 20th century. As the Faith began to spread in the West, it did so as a semi-secret movement, passing along on a one-to-one “insider’s” basis. With the rise of the Baha’i administrative order, this “esoteric-gnostic” motif waned and now has almost completely disappeared.

The fact that two of the four themes Smith identified — Messianic and Esoteric-Gnostic — have all but faded from the picture, and that there has been no change in the other two since period #6, led some class members to wonder if they hav not been replaced by other “motifs” which may have been missed in his analysis of Baha’i history. Smith’s analysis is more suggestive for Babi history than it is for Baha’i history.

It also was noted that the concept of a “Polar” motif (which gives rise to the Covenant) is wholly absent from Christian theology and perhaps even alien to that religious experience. This concept is even difficult to exlain to Christians. It was useful to have it recognized in Smith’s paper.

WHO’S WHO: (a short course, limited to persons under 5’2″ of 1.75 meters, whichever comes first). From time to time, we receive mail, cryptically addressed to “study class notes” or some othe innocuous cover name at the Hermosa Beach address which appears atop these newsletters. For the record (fi anyone out there cares), although we are casually organized, here’s a rundown on who does what for our class. ANTHONY LEE of Los Angeles is our ringleader and enfant terrible. He lines up our speakers, occasionally filling in himself when there is a gap in the list and more or less (more more than less) runs the show. He also whips up one heck of a fine Quiche Lorraine (but don’t bother asking for the recipe, its a family secret). CHRIS HENDERSHOT of Manhattan Beach types up these newsletters without complaint… or pay or praise… or anything else, either. She and her husband will soon be off to pioneer in Venezuela, no doubt as the best way to escape the chose of trying to puzzle out the tortured prose of BOB BALLANGER of Hermosa Beach, who writes (or, as irate guest speakers might phrase it, “distorts, misrepresents and trashes”) the class sessions. Ballenger also is responsible for the series of lame puns and other outrageous asides herein contained. And, it is his address which appears on the heading of these newsletters. So, when writing with commments, threats or reactions, please address the envelopes to him. And, finally, there is PAULA WAHLSTROM of Maywood, our treasurer, bookkeeper and secret witness. She’s the lady to whom you pay your dues, which are probably, even as you read this, now due. Pay up. It’s only 12 bucks a year. Cheap at twice the price, gang. Re-new now. We need the dinero. (Send to Paula at [Ed. personal address withheld])

NEXT CLASS: For our next act, we are hoping to recruit one of the three National Spiritual Assembly members (Dr. Dorothy Nelson, Judge James Nelson or Richard Betts) who live in Southern California to come and discuss “The Crisis in the Five Year Plan.” As most of you probably know, the American Baha’i community is poised on the brink of disaster with regard to winning the goals of the Plan. If we can’t get an NSA member, we’ll dredge up some other topic for discussion. The next class will be held on SUNDAY, APRIL 16, at 2 pm in the home of Richard Bruce, [Ed. personal address withheld]. See you there!


Related Links:

The original scanned documents can be found here.